Gonarthrosis of the knee joint occupies a leading place in the group of diseases of degenerative-dystrophic origin of the musculoskeletal system.
Gonarthrosis or osteoarthritis of the knee joint is a disease accompanied by slow destruction of the cartilage tissue of the joint with the participation of the entire joint in the pathological process, including yoga, synovium, subcutaneous bone and other elements of the joint.
Influenced by various factors, such as infectious diseases (cold, flu, typhoid, tuberculosis, syphilis, tonsillitis, etc. ), injuries, functional swelling of the joint (for example, in athletes, hard-working workers, ballet dancers)Disruption of tissue trophism (nutrition), resulting in cartilage thinning and destruction, sometimes even disappearing completely.
But, for a long time, gonarthrosis is a disease of the elderly. And there is a simple explanation for this. As you know, cartilage is about 70-80% water, which is why it is well absorbed. In addition, chondrocytes are actively working on cell “restorers” at a young age. With age, the amount of moisture decreases and, consequently, the ability of the joint pad deteriorates, the cartilage becomes dry, fragile and cracks, and the existing chondrocytes do not have time to repair the damage. In many ways, this opens the door for gonarthrosis of the knee joint.
Who is at risk? First of all, osteoarthritis of the knee joint is at risk of "earning" women over the age of forty, they have it 2 times more often than in the strong half of humanity. Moreover, the risk increases in women who are overweight or obese.
Causes of the disease
Predisposing factors include overweight, physical inactivity, chronic joint damage or systemic joint microtrauma, alcohol abuse, chronic stress, pre- or existing knee joint diseases such as:
- Knee arthritis,
- Stretching, partial or complete rupture of ligaments,
- Intra-articular fracture of the femur or shin,
- Metabolic disorders such as gout and a number of other pathological conditions.
Quite often it is impossible to identify any specific cause of knee joint gonarthrosis, in which case they speak of a combined cause, i. e. gonarthrosis was the result of several diseases at the same time.
Also, the disease, due to the causes of its occurrence, is usually divided into two forms: primary and secondary.
Primary osteoarthritis is caused by age and related factors such as:
- Professional inclination,
- Excess weight,
- Varicose veins of the lower extremities.
Secondary gonarthrosis can be caused by an anterior knee injury (fracture, rupture of the yoga apparatus) called posttraumatic arthrosis of the knee joint. The same cause can be a previous infectious disease or inflammation of the knee joint.
Signs of osteoarthritis of the knee joint do not appear overnight, the disease develops gradually and often occurs for months or even years. Pain that is constant and increases with physical activity - walking, jogging, lowering or climbing stairs, etc. Sh. Another symptom of this disease is the presence of crepitus in the joint, it could be a knee sprain or crisis.
There are also very common manifestations of gonarthrosis:
- Local temperature rise (joint is hot to the touch) or general,
- Existence of joint swelling,
- increase its volume,
- difficulty in movement,
- Deformation of the joint, followed by curvature of the limb.
As the disease progresses, when the cartilage tissue is completely destroyed, the body has no other way to protect itself. This is manifested by the proliferation of bone tissue on the bones that form the joint in the form of "thorns" (osteophytes), marked by deforming arthrosis of the knee joint. Exudate occurs in the articular cavities.
Osteophyte size and degree of deformity distinguish several degrees of gonarthrosis:
- 1st degree gonarthrosis.Patients experience tightness and slight pain in the joint in the morning or while sitting or standing for long periods of time. There is no joint deformation at this stage, mobility is fully maintained. X-ray reveals small osteophyte.
- 2 degree gonarthrosis.Painful sensations appear not only in the morning, but also after prolonged load, the joint deforms, the surfaces of the joints widen, resulting in an increase in the volume of the joint, it is difficult to bend, a crisis is felt while performing the movement. X-ray reveals pronounced osteophyte, joint space does not change.
- Grade 3 gonarthrosis.Manifestations are the same as in the second degree, only the symptoms are more pronounced. The pain is constant, it does not subside during rest and sleep. Joint function is almost completely lost, patients can neither bend nor straighten the leg. As a result, lameness occurs, movement occurs only with crutches, or with external assistance. Marked deformation of the knee joint is noted. The x-ray shows a slight narrowing of the joint space.
- There is also a fourth stagein which there is complete immobility with further deformation of the affected joint. X-rays show significant narrowing of the subcutaneous bone sclerosis and joint space.
Treatment of knee osteoarthritis
To get good results from treatment you should consult a qualified rheumatologist and if he is not there then the therapist as they know how to cure osteoarthritis of the knee joint. By no means do I want to convey that I recommend for the mother to be inactive. It is extremely important to make a correct diagnosis before starting treatment, because a correct diagnosis is the key to successful treatment.
Treatment of gonarthrosis is quite a long process and depends on many factors (type of arthrosis, cause of arthrosis, degree of disease). Treatment is complex and includes medical and non-medical therapy, and in some cases surgical treatment is indicated.
Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint is mainly aimed at alleviating the main manifestations of the disease, for example:
- Inflammation of the joint and periarticular tissues.
- Repair of joint tissue,
- improves its trophism and blood circulation,
- Strengthen the body's defenses,
- Eliminate allergic reactions.
Various non-narcotic analgesics are used to relieve pain symptoms, in rare cases narcotic analgesics are prescribed for a short time. Most often, drugs are used from the group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They have a combined anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic action.
Chondroprotectors are used to restore cartilage tissue and improve joint mobility. Drugs stimulate the activity of cartilage cells - chondrocytes and help them to repair tissue. Intra-articular insertion of its protectors gives a good effect. A new, effective product based on hyaluronic acid has appeared in recent years. For its action, this drug is called a "liquid prosthesis". After injection into the diseased joint, this drug forms a protective film on the damaged cartilage and gradually restores the normal lubrication characteristics of the joint.
Muscle relaxants are used to relieve muscle spasms, in addition to the fact that they have a positive effect on the blood circulation in the affected joint.
Manual and physical therapy are widely used from non-drug methods of treating gonarthrosis. The most important are magnetotherapy, acupuncture, electrophoresis and massage, traction (joint extension) and more. Recently, methods such as laser therapy, cryotherapy (exposure to liquid nitrogen) have been introduced into the practice of treating osteoarthritis. In addition to physiotherapy, exercise therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee joint also has a good effect. Lfk is the use of various physical exercises for therapeutic purposes.
Gymnastics for Knee Osteoarthritis
At the beginning of the disease, physical activity on the affected joint should be reduced to a minimum. You do not have to run, jump, lift weights, walk fast, sit. Exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee joint can be performed only after undergoing a course of treatment, under the supervision of a physician.
It is essential to choose exercises that help strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the affected knee joint, but at the same time do not lead the joint to excessive mobility. That is, the exercises should be with minimal dynamic activity. It is useful to do yoga and stretching exercises for joint capsules. The rules are the same, the exercises are completed gently, without any effort.
It is important to follow a few rules when performing any exercise:
- Do not train for pain
- If exercise causes pain, then it should be replaced with another more gentle one.
Knee osteoarthritis massage has a beneficial effect on restoring knee joint functions. Blood vessels at the site of impact are dilated, blood circulation is improved, and metabolism is accelerated. Massage procedures improve lymph flow and this, in turn, helps eliminate residual inflammation. Massage strengthens the muscular system, increases the flow of oxygen in them, improves gas exchange, normalizes their tone and increases plasticity.
Diet for Knee Osteoarthritis
Recently, medical specialists have found that there is no direct link between cases of gonarthrosis and nutrition. However, it is an indisputable fact that the development of osteoarthritis is greatly influenced by the presence of excess weight in humans. If the cause of the disease was precisely excess weight, then it is obvious that the nutrition of osteoarthritis of the knee joint is aimed at a gradual reduction of body weight. This requires changing the diet and changing the diet. Foods should be low in calories, fried and fatty foods should be excluded from the diet. Eat more vegetables, fruits and fluids.
Prevention of knee joint arthrosis
In order for the joints to be healthy for as long as possible, you need to engage in regular physical culture and exercise, but you should not take this into account as this will not cause the joints to overload. Swimming gives the best effect and minimal stress on the joints. When it comes to professional sports, joint protection should be used. It is useful to alternate physical activity with the rest, you should not stay still for long.
Adhering to all these simple rules, healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition, will not allow osteoarthritis of the knee joint to ruin any human life.