Why back pain: causes, types of pain, treatment

A lot of pain in the back and very different, from time to time, this happens with most adults. A pain is not a sign of something serious, just need to do some simple exercises to pass. Someone becomes a symptom of a tumor, infection or degenerative changes of the spine.

To understand what causes pain, how it happens and what to do with it is not so difficult.

The reasons for back pain

the reasons for back pain

Why back pain? The causes of back pain are different. Describe the easiest way to break into groups.

  • Temporary. The syndrome occurs in healthy people for a short period of time, as a result of exposure to adverse conditions, the abuse of physical activity, prolonged standing in one position. Not dangerous, just to get rid of.
  • Degenerative. Occurs as a result of changes in the spine: the spine is altered, problems with the intervertebral disks that pinched a nerve. Not dangerous, but unpleasant and has a long period of time.
  • Infectious. It becomes a symptom of the inflammatory process that occurs in the spine or surrounding muscles. Dangerous, because the infection affects the whole body negatively and can lead to the death of the patient.
  • Radiates. It becomes a symptom of disease of the internal organs. The spine is not affected, the pain just goes on the back.
  • Other. This group combined reasons, which are not included in the first four.

Understanding why the pain in the back need to refer to each group separately.

Temporary pain

It is a small group, but with them you will have a chance to face with any person. The reasons have three:

  • Awkward body position. Back pain is a natural reaction of muscle tension and improper curvature of the spine. Pain nagging, unpleasant. Typical for people who work sitting several hours, creating a comfortable work space, with a longer stay in one position.
  • A muscle strain. If the untrained person begins to carry heavy loads, you will be engaged in active work or go to the gym, the reaction of his muscles and the ligament is naturally on the next day, he will suffer from pain. Her character-drawing is increased when you try to move. If you continue to strain, can lead to inflammation of the muscles.
  • Pregnancy. In order for the baby to exit the birth canal, already in the first months of pregnancy, a woman's body begins to produce a hormone that ligaments soft. At the same time, the longer the duration, the greater the child, the weight and load of the spine results nagging persistent pain localised in the lower back or sacrum.

Back pain of this type is the muscles are back, and the child is born, the position of the body changes and returns to normal with little input from the patient.

All he can do to alleviate their condition, providing yourself time to rest.

Degenerative pain

degenerative pain

As the malfunction is more serious than temporary, and by themselves do not pass. They include:

  • Low in the back. The reason for the degenerative changes in the structure of the intervertebral discs. They lose the elasticity and becomes flat, causing the vertebrae become less mobile, crumble, change the shape. Vary, depending on which of the affected regions of the spine: cervical, thoracic, lumbar. The neck is accompanied by pain which give to the shoulder, painful headaches, dizziness, hearing impairment. Chest considering the chest, often so much so that there are problems with breathing. Lumbar radiates to the legs, often accompanied by lameness and disorders of the organs in the pelvis.
  • Intervertebral hernia. Hernia develops when the intervertebral disc bulges between the vertebrae. At first the pain is dull, nagging, increases when the disk presses the vertebrae when the patient coughs, lifting weights, long to sit in one place. In the future, increases, begins to give in the limbs, becomes acute. Accompanied by weakness of the muscles, rapid change of position of the body for the worse, the problems with the sensitivity of the limbs. If left untreated, can lead to a paralysis of everything below the disk which serious.
  • The displacement of the spine. Develops or due to congenital anomalies or degenerative changes in the structure of the spine. Often localized in the lumbar region, the pain is constant, nagging, comments in the buttocks and legs.
  • Of a herniated disc. It becomes a logical continuation of the development of a herniated disc. Serious disc bulges, so that, in fact, are falling from his seat. For a condition that is characterized by acute pain the patient freezes in one position and trying very hard not to move, not to get worse.
  • Sciatica. Occurs due to entrapment of the spinal roots. Is manifested by pain, then tingling, numbness, reduced sensitivity to to the complete atrophy of the plot, whose connection with the nervous system provides a particular sport. Because sciatica is caused lumbago pain syndrome in which the patient suddenly shoot back and he freezes in a bent position, unable to straighten up.
  • Osteoporosis. Are going on or due to old age or due to hormonal disorders in the body. Bone tissue, as a result of the disease, becomes less dense and loses its normal structure. Pain during the long stay in a static posture or when the weather changes. They are accompanied by a change of attitude, cramps in the legs and extreme fragility of the bones of any weak shock can lead to fracture.
  • Bechterew's Disease. A disease that leads to weakening of the small joints of the spine, connecting the individual vertebrae. Characterized by constant pain, which increases until the evening, and it becomes easier in the morning.

Degenerative changes are chronic and are treated, mainly, by lifestyle changes and manual therapy. Symptomatic therapy is only administered at the time of relapse, surgery is indicated only in some cases of osteochondrosis, for example, they do not help.


Specific inflammations of the spine not so much for the most part the syndrome is due to infectious diseases, which can, in principle, be localized anywhere. Most often it is two diseases:

  • TB. The pulmonary form is most common, but it also happens that affects the spine. Pain and painful, the treatment is long and difficult, often the person remains on the results invalid.
  • Osteomyelitis. Affects the bone, the periosteum, the bone marrow. Working hard, with the formation of pus. Nagging pain, accompanied by the formation of fistulas, festering wounds on the body.

And tuberculosis, and osteomyelitis are accompanied by fever, headache, muscle weakness, fatigue, and often, also, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea all these are classical symptoms of the infection. Treatment should be immediately, because the earlier stage so it will be more efficient.


irradiiruet pain

Diseases of internal organs can also cause pain. This pain is not increased and is not reduced by changing the position of the body, and is also accompanied by clear symptoms indicates a certain authority.

  • Kidney. The most common variant, often in inflammatory diseases or with gems. Girdle pain at the level of the waist, stronger back, not up. Accompanied by frequent urination, an intense yellow color of urine or blood in it, fever. Sometimes found in the form of renal colic sharp pain on one side of the back.
  • The digestive tract. Ulcers in the stomach gastritis or pain relief may be given in the arms. The nature in the pain, occur, or in the evening, when the man goes to sleep, or when he is hungry, or immediately after a meal. Accompanied by the classic symptoms of indigestion and of the bowels, bloating, increased gas, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea. Sometimes, there is a heartburn and blood in the stool black, if the patient has ulcers of the stomach, liver, if ulcer of the intestine.
  • Gynecology. Women are also pain pain in nature, which is located right above the waist. Associated with disorders of the menstrual cycle, secretions of unusual color and texture with an unpleasant smell, problems during sex, sometimes a high temperature.
  • Lungs. Stabbing pain in the thoracic spine, increasing on the inhale, on the exhalation weakens. Accompanied by shortness of breath, shallow and rapid breathing, symptoms of oxygen starvation, fatigue, dizziness, fainting.
  • Heart. Of stabbing pain, also in the thoracic, may be given a shoulder and arm on the left side. Accompanied by arrhythmia or tachycardia, shortness of breath, dizziness.

In this case, pain syndromes easy contact with the internal organs, because when regular pain in the back, no additional symptoms were observed.


This group includes such diseases as malignant tumor and back injuries, which were not included in the previous one. They are characterized by different symptoms:

  • Tumor. Cancer in the spine is found only rarely, then, is under the influence or of the bone marrow or bone tissue. Often the back is full with metastases, and then, in addition to the primary symptoms the patient suffers from severe pain in the back.
  • Injury. Drop, shock, and other injuries leave a bruise, sometimes broken ribs, or even the spine. And symptoms and treatment are very dependent on the nature of the injury, of which one vertebra it comes to a young man. Most often, the consequences range from simply waiting for the bruise to go to the hospital and a long wait until the bones grow together.

In any case, these causes are serious and require a visit to the doctor, diagnosis and treatment.

Types of pain

Back pain is often different to assume what the problem is, just by its nature. Happen:

  • strong traction is a feature of degenerative change, or, if it is accompanied by symptoms of cardiac or pulmonary disease;
  • acute occurs when the sciatica, prolapsed vertebral, renal colic and infections often accompanied by fever;
  • nagging often caused by tension in the muscles (and then the muscles in the palpation the firm, reduced), but may be evidence of degenerative changes in the acute phase, if the back pain permanent;
  • radiating back pain symptoms are accompanied by symptoms from other organs, the pain does not change the intensity or, depending on the position of the body, or, depending on the time of day.

If the pain in the back, pain talks about what is involved. Sometimes you don't even need a visit to the doctor and you can understand yourself.

You need to do for back pain?

what to do for back pain

There are some cases when to go to the doctor, you do not need:

  • if the disease is chronic and the patient has not had time;
  • if the pain arises from muscular overstrain;
  • if the patient is just sitting in an awkward position and can clearly connect with this pain.

In such cases, it is sufficient to keep the place that hurts warm (can be completed with a scarf), to avoid awkward postures and to drink vitamins help the body to recover faster.

Immediately appointment with the doctor or to call home, you need if:

  • the pain came after the injury;
  • the pain is accompanied by loss of sensitivity of the arms or limbs;
  • the pain lasts for a few days or even enhanced;
  • it is accompanied by a fever and other symptoms of the infection;
  • the pain continues, even if you lie down and relax;
  • the pain is accompanied with additional symptoms of tachycardia, shortness of breath, problems with urination, constipation or diarrhea.

The doctor, also, you need to visit if the pain in the back hurts for a child or elderly person over the age of fifty years.


Diagnostics are carried out sequentially after the consultation where the doctor asks the patient about symptoms and to perform palpation, a variety of tests to understand what could lead to back pain.

Among them are:

  • General blood and urine gives an idea about the status of the body, and also for the detection of infectious contamination, if any;
  • x-rays suitable for detection of tumors and tuberculosis, gives the impression of the shape of the spine and its deformation;
  • Ultrasound and MRI are used to obtain the most detailed image of the spine.

After receiving the results of the examination, the doctor may have to assume that was the cause of this condition and to assign the more specialized tests. A biopsy, which will show which processes are in the tissues, neurological tests, showing the depth of the lesion, infectious cultures, identifying the causative agent.

As a result, the range narrowed so that the cause of this pathology will become apparent and you can continue with the treatment.